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Disadvantage and Advantages of Assembly Language


From the dawn of human society to the point in time that we are in, we have developed a lot. And our technology has developed with us. We are in a multilinguistic world with different languages but unfortunately, our computer is not. But still, we can talk to them thanks to the assembly language. 

In this article, we are going to see the advantages of assembly languages and how because of it, smartphones became an integrated part of our lives.

Programming Language:-

A professional language used in computing that is made up of a bunch of instructions executed to have different types of outcomes is called Programming language which is a part of computer programming.

Disadvantage and Advantages of Assembly Language

The programming language based on the abstraction is divided into two levels: High level and Low level and is carried out by the CPU(Central Processing Unit).

The low-level programming language is more machine-oriented compared to High-level language and is less abstract and not so easy compared to High-level programming language.

There are two types of low-level programming language that are Assembly language and Machine code. Although, Assembly language and Machine code both are Low-level languages they have totally different tasks from each other. Along with these two, a user can also opt for a high-level programming level in computing.

There are many modern programming languages that a user can use and learn that include C, C++, COBOL, Java, Python, Fortran, Ada, Ruby/Ruby on Rails, HTML(HyperText Markup Language), and Pascal.

Machine language:-

Native code is one of the names used for Machine code is a computer programming that is written in Machine language that is usually the binary language.

It is the lowest level in the hierarchy. Like Assembly language, other programming codes are also converted into the Machine code so that computer can understand and works on it.

The machine code works on the instruction which informs the computer of what operation to perform and every single instruction is made from an operation code called opcode and operands which is a memory data and addresses and an instruction list is a set of opcodes available in the computers.

A computer does not need any compiler or interpreters to execute Machine language as it is already in the binary form.


A compiler is a program builder that converts one programming language to another programming language like decoding the first programming language and then encoding it into other programming languages. A compiler is usually used in converting Assembly language into Machine code.

Assembly Language:-

Assembly language is one such low-level programming language that is sometimes called Symbolic Machine Code.

Assembly language is also called Assembler language and ASM in the short form and functions on the computer architecture. It can calculate expressions that take a lot of user’s time in machine code.

A user can simply ask the computer to work on any task using Assembly language and act differently on different CPUs. Assembly language is very easy to use as it is a language that does not use binary or in simple words, numbers but use English words that we use in daily life. 

It is easy to use Assembly language because it uses Mnemonics( M is silent) which is a short word used for each low-level instructions such as Mov indicating moving data from a place to another, Add which means adding data, for identifying each architectural register which is the location address given to a computer’s processor that can be easily accessed.

In the assembly language, the user is not needed to remember all the number’s digits which makes it easier to read than Machine code.

As we know, computers can not understand anything other than their original official language that is the binary language i.e. 0 and 1 but it is pretty easy to convert the assembly language into Machine code by turning the words in the language into numbers.

To convert the Assembly language into binary to make it understandable for the computer, we use a program called an assembler.


The process of converting Assembly code into Machine code through assembler is called assembly.

Assembler is a program which is used to convert Assembly low-level codes into machine code for making the computer understand the language and many Assemblers can provide a system to enhance the development of the program, to control assembly process and also provide treatment against debugging that are the procedures to find any kind of bug in the system, software or programs.

Why use Assembly language and not Machine code?

Assembly language and Machine code both are a low-level programming language but are entirely different from each other in the way they function.

Assembly language is a low-level programming language that uses instruction in the language we use daily that is English whereas Machine code uses a binary form of language that can be in itself be understood by the computer.

The computer can not understand any other language other than Binary so Assembly code is converted into Machine code by a program called Assembler and a user instead of Assembler can also use Compiler which is also a program used to convert high-level programming language into Machine code.

Assembly language is a middle layer between high level whereas Machine language is the lowest level out of three and it is easy to understand a language that you already know rather than experimenting with 0 and 1s and the user does not have to undergo a long calculation to achieve the data.

Uses of Assembly language:-

Assembly language is preferred more in comparison to Machine language and is used widely as it reduces the most time consuming first-generation computer programming that was vulnerable to errors. It saves a user’s time.

As technology is updating day-by-day, many things are not used as much as it was used before due to development of new technology such as high-level programming level such pythons, C, C++, but still, Assembly language is used for direct hardware manipulation, access to specialized processor instructions, and to tackle any serious performance issues and is mostly used in low level embedded system, device driver and realtime system.

Advantages of Assembly language

Everything has its pros and cons and Assembly language is nonetheless the same. Here are some of the well-known advantages of assembly language.

A programmer if using Assembly language can have complete control over their device’s system and its function which Machine language cannot provide to its users and learning simple syntax is easier than learning numbers code and calculation addresses.

Assembly language uses less time which helps in speed enhancement leading to heightened efficiency and its performances and it helps the programmers to understand each instruction and processes that take place and a programmer should know what she/he is doing.

Assembly Language does not require detecting the operand’s machine address and the syntax can be represented with a symbol due to which it is easy to visually understand the procedures.

Even though Assembly language has a fewer number of instructions and operations is still the best programming a person can ask for if they want to learn the algorithm and controlling of it.

Assembly language overall makes the coding simpler and not make it complicated as well as provides aid for debugging meaning searching for any kind of bugs in the system, software, and then working against it.

Overall Assembly language lets the work done in a simpler way rather than complicating it, it needs less memory space proving it more business-like and is more likely takes less time in executing the task due to faster speed and for the most part, is hardware-oriented.

In assembly language, programmers can complete the operation in a short process to get the output as it requires few instructions and nowadays is used in very critical jobs and are used in low embedded system as well as keeping tabs on memory location is not needed in it.

A user can create its own code and have complete copyright on it but it is rarely seen that a user creates its own code.

Disadvantages of Assembly language

Nothing is perfect in this world and assembly language is no exception. In the former section, we have discussed the advantages of Assembly language, in this section, we are going to see the disadvantages of Assembly languages.

Assembly language though is above Machine language it will still take time to types codes per code to function an operation and is quite an easy target for bugs and due to its architecture, it would be hard to detect bugs. If a beginner is typing the code then it is most likely error-prone and creating a code can for the first time can be difficult.

In the future time, it won’t work as a user will not get any output due to its architecture so a user can also learn High-level programming language as they are machine-independent and assembly language is dependent on the machine.

Note: Even a small change in the algorithmic design can completely negate all the existing assembly code so a user should only take such kind of risk if they are ready to rewrite all the codes.


In this article, we have seen what assembly language is, what machine language is, the advantages of assembly language, its disadvantages, and many more. In this section, we are going to conclude the article.

Assembly language is a part of programming language and a user can also use other levels of a programming language such as high-level programming language and Machine language but out of two, High-level programming levels like Python, Forton, and Ada is best to use and learn.

Assembly language is also known as Symbolic Machine Code, Assembler code, and ASM and assembler is a computer program that is used to convert to Assembly code into Machine code as it is a binary form language that a computer can only understand.

Any other language than Machine code is coveted into Machine language by another computer program called a compiler.

Assembly language is better than Machine language as it does not require learning long numbers code and calculations but a little less than High-level programming language that includes Java.